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Food energy – Wikipedia

Chemical energy animals derive from food

Food energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from their food to sustain their metabolism, including their muscular activity.

Most animals derive most of their energy from aerobic respiration, namely combining the carbohydrates, fats, and proteins with oxygen from air or dissolved in water. Other smaller components of the diet, such as organic acids, polyols, and ethanol (drinking alcohol) may contribute to the energy input. Some diet components that provide little or no food energy, such as water, minerals, vitamins, cholesterol, and fiber, may still be necessary to health and survival for other reasons. Some organisms have instead anaerobic respiration, which extracts energy from food by reactions that do not require oxygen.

The energy contents of a given mass of food is usually expressed in the metric (SI) unit of energy, the joule (J), and its multiple the kilojoule (kJ); or in the traditional unit of heat energy, the calorie (cal). In nutritional contexts, the latter is always the “large” variant of the unit, also written “Calorie” (with symbol Cal, both with capital “C”) or “kilocalorie” (kcal), and equivalent to 4184 J or 4.184 kJ. Thus, for example, fats and ethanol have the greatest amount of food energy per unit mass, 37 and 29 kJ/g (9 and 7 kcal/g), respectively. Proteins and most carbohydrates have about 17 kJ/g (4 kcal/g), though there are differences between different kinds. For example, the values for glucose, sucrose, and starch are 15.57, 16.48 and 17.48 kilojoules per gram (3.72, 3.94 and 4.18 kcal/g) respectively. The differing energy density of foods (fat, alcohols, carbohydrates and proteins) lies mainly in their varying proportions of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates that are not easily absorbed, such as fibre, or lactose in lactose-intolerant individuals, contribute less food energy. Polyols (including sugar alcohols) and organic acids contribute 10 kJ/g (2.4 kcal/g) and 13 kJ/g (3.1 kcal/g) respectively.

The energy contents of a complex dish or meal can be approximated by adding the energy contents of its components.

History and methods of measurement

Direct calorimetry of combustion

The first determinations of the energy content of food were made by burning a dried sample in a bomb calorimeter and measuring the temperature change in the water surrounding the apparatus, a method known as direct calorimetry.

The Atwater system

Main article: Atwater system

However, the direct calorimetric method generally overestimates the actual energy that the body can obtain from the food, because it also counts the energy contents of dietary fiber and other indigestible components, and does not allow for partial absorption and/or incomplete metabolism of certain substances. For this reason, today the energy content of food is instead obtained indirectly, by using chemical analysis to determine the amount of each digestible dietary component (such as protein, carbohydrates, and fats), and adding the respective food energy contents, previously obtained by measurement of metabolic heat released by the body. In particular, the fibre content is excluded. This method is known as the Modified Atwater system, after Wilbur Atwater who pioneered these measurements in the late 19th century.

The system was later improved by Annabel Merrill and Bernice Watt of the USDA, who derived a system whereby specific calorie conversion factors for different foods were proposed.

Dietary sources of energy

The typical human diet consists chiefly of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, ethanol, and indigestible components such as bones, seeds, and fibre (mostly cellulose). Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins typically comprise ninety percent of the dry weight of food. Ruminants can extract food energy from the respiration of cellulose because of bacteria in their rumens that decompose it into digestible carbohydrates.

Other minor components of the human diet that contribute to its energy content are organic acids such as citric and tartaric, and polyols such as glycerol, xylitol, inositol, and sorbitol.

Some nutrients have regulatory roles affected by cell signaling, in addition to providing energy for the body. For example, leucine plays an important role in the regulation of protein metabolism and suppresses an individual’s appetite. Small amounts of essential fatty acids, constituents of some fats that cannot be synthesized by the human body, are used (and necessary) for other biochemical processes.

The approximate food energy contents of various human diet components, to be used in package labeling according to the EU regulations and UK regulations, are:

Food component Energy density
kJ/g kcal/g
Fat 37 9
Ethanol 29 7
Proteins 17 4
Carbohydrates 17 4
Organic acids 13 3
Polyols (sugar alcohols, sweeteners) (1) 10 2.4
Fiber (2) 8 2

(1) Some polyols, like erythritol, are not digested and should be excluded from the count.

(2) This entry exists in the EU regulations of 2008, but not in the UK regulations, according to which fibre shall not be counted.

More detailed tables for specific foods have been published by many organizations, such as the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization also has published a similar table.

Other components of the human diet are either noncaloric, or are usually consumed in such small amounts that they can be neglected.

Energy usage in the human body

Main articles: Bioenergetics and Energy balance (biology)

The food energy actually obtained by respiration is used by the human body for a wide range of purposes, including basal metabolism of various organs and tissues, maintaining the internal body temperature, and exerting muscular force to maintain posture and produce motion. About 20% is used for brain metabolism.

The conversion efficiency of energy from respiration into muscular (physical) power depends on the type of food and on the type of physical energy usage (e.g., which muscles are used, whether the muscle is used aerobically or anaerobically). In general, the efficiency of muscles is rather low: only 18 to 26% of the energy available from respiration is converted into mechanical energy. This low efficiency is the result of about 40% efficiency of generating ATP from the respiration of food, losses in converting energy from ATP into mechanical work inside the muscle, and mechanical losses inside the body. The latter two losses are dependent on the type of exercise and the type of muscle fibers being used (fast-twitch or slow-twitch). For an overall efficiency of 20%, one watt of mechanical power is equivalent to 18 kJ/h (4.3 kcal/h). For example, a manufacturer of rowing equipment shows calories released from “burning” food as four times the actual mechanical work, plus 1,300 kJ (300 kcal) per hour, which amounts to about 20% efficiency at 250 watts of mechanical output. It can take up to 20 hours of little physical output (e.g., walking) to “burn off” 17,000 kJ (4,000 kcal) more than a body would otherwise consume. For reference, each kilogram of body fat is roughly equivalent to 32,300 kilojoules of food energy (i.e., 3,500 kilocalories per pound or 7,700 kilocalories per kilogram).

Recommended daily intake

Many countries and health organizations have published recommendations for healthy levels of daily intake of food energy. For example, the United States government estimates 8,400 and 10,900 kJ (2,000 and 2,600 kcal) needed for women and men, respectively, between ages 26 and 45, whose total physical activity is equivalent to walking around 2.5 to 5 km (1+12 to 3 mi) per day in addition to the activities of sedentary living. These estimates are for a “reference woman” who is 1.63 m (5 ft 4 in) tall and weighs 57 kg (126 lb) and a “reference man” who is 1.78 m (5 ft 10 in) tall and weighs 70 kg (154 lb). Because caloric requirements vary by height, activity, age, pregnancy status, and other factors, the USDA created the DRI Calculator for Healthcare Professionals in order to determine individual caloric needs.

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the average minimum energy requirement per person per day is about 7,500 kJ (1,800 kcal).

Older people and those with sedentary lifestyles require less energy; children and physically active people require more. Recognizing these factors, Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council recommends different daily energy intakes for each age and gender group. Notwithstanding, nutrition labels on Australian food products typically recommend the average daily energy intake of 8,800 kJ (2,100 kcal).

The minimum food energy intake is also higher in cold environments. Increased mental activity has been linked with moderately increased brain energy consumption.

Nutrition labels

The nutritional information label on a pack of Basmati rice in the United Kingdom

Many governments require food manufacturers to label the energy content of their products, to help consumers control their energy intake. To facilitate evaluation by consumers, food energy values (and other nutritional properties) in package labels or tables are often quoted for convenient amounts of the food, rather than per gram or kilogram; such as in “calories per serving” or “kcal per 100 g”, or “kJ per package”. The units vary depending on country:

Country Mandatory unit (symbol) Second unit (symbol) Common usage
United States Calorie (Cal) kilojoule (kJ), optional calorie (cal)
Canada Calorie (Cal)[citation needed] kilojoule (kJ), optional[citation needed] calorie (cal)[citation needed]
Australia and New Zealand kilojoule (kJ) kilocalorie (kcal), optional AU: kilocalorie (kcal)[citation needed]
United Kingdom kJ kcal, mandatory
European Union kilojoule (kJ) kilocalorie (kcal), mandatory
Brazil caloria or quilocaloria (kcal) caloria

See also

  • Atwater system
  • Basal metabolic rate
  • Calorie
  • Chemical energy
  • Food chain
  • Food composition
  • Heat of combustion
  • Nutrition facts label
  • Table of food nutrients
  • List of countries by food energy intake

References

External links

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Metabolism, catabolism, anabolism
General
  • Metabolic pathway
  • Metabolic network
  • Primary nutritional groups
Energy
metabolism
Aerobic respiration
  • Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain + ATP synthase)
Anaerobic respiration
  • Electron acceptors other than oxygen
Fermentation
  • Glycolysis → Substrate-level phosphorylation
    • ABE
    • Ethanol
    • Lactic acid
Specific
paths
Protein metabolism
  • Protein synthesis
  • Catabolism
Carbohydrate metabolism
(carbohydrate catabolism
and anabolism)
Human
  • Glycolysis ⇄ Gluconeogenesis
  • Glycogenolysis ⇄ Glycogenesis
  • Pentose phosphate pathway
  • Fructolysis
  • Galactolysis
  • Glycosylation
    • N-linked
    • O-linked
Nonhuman
  • Photosynthesis
  • Anoxygenic photosynthesis
  • Chemosynthesis
  • Carbon fixation
  • Xylose metabolism
  • Radiotrophism
Lipid metabolism
(lipolysis, lipogenesis)
Fatty acid metabolism
  • Fatty acid degradation (Beta oxidation)
  • Fatty acid synthesis
Other
  • Steroid metabolism
  • Sphingolipid metabolism
  • Eicosanoid metabolism
  • Ketosis
  • Reverse cholesterol transport
Amino acid
  • Amino acid synthesis
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Nucleotide
metabolism
  • Purine metabolism
  • Nucleotide salvage
  • Pyrimidine metabolism
Other
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    • Iron metabolism
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Metabolism map
Metro-style map of major metabolic pathways
Carbon
fixation
Photo-
respiration
Pentose
phosphate
pathway
Citric
acid cycle
Glyoxylate
cycle
Urea
cycle
Fatty
acid
synthesis
Fatty
acid
elongation
Beta
oxidation
Peroxisomal
beta
oxidation

Glyco-
genolysis
Glyco-
genesis
Glyco-
lysis
Gluconeo-
genesis
Pyruvate
decarb-
oxylation
Fermentation
Keto-
lysis
Keto-
genesis
feeders to
gluconeo-
genesis
Direct / C4 / CAM
carbon intake
Light reaction
Oxidative
phosphorylation
Amino acid
deamination
Citrate
shuttle
Lipogenesis
Lipolysis
Steroidogenesis
MVA pathway
MEP pathway
Shikimate
pathway
Transcription &
replication
Translation
Proteolysis
Glycosyl-
ation

Sugar
acids
Double/multiple
sugars & glycans
Simple
sugars
Inositol-P
Amino sugars
& sialic acids
Nucleotide sugars
Hexose-P
Triose-P
Glycerol
P-glycerates
Pentose-P
Tetrose-P
Propionyl
-CoA
Succinate
Acetyl
-CoA
Pentose-P
P-glycerates
Glyoxylate
Photosystems
Pyruvate
Lactate
Acetyl
-CoA
Citrate
Oxalo-
acetate
Malate
Succinyl
-CoA
α-Keto-
glutarate
Ketone
bodies
Respiratory
chain
Serine group
Alanine
Branched-chain
amino acids
Aspartate
group
Homoserine
group
& lysine
Glutamate
group
& proline
Arginine
Creatine
& polyamines
Ketogenic &
glucogenic
amino acids
Amino acids
Shikimate
Aromatic amino
acids & histidine
Ascorbate
(vitamin C)
δ-ALA
Bile
pigments
Hemes
Cobalamins (vitamin B12)
Various
vitamin Bs
Calciferols
(vitamin D)
Retinoids
(vitamin A)
Quinones (vitamin K)
& tocopherols (vitamin E)
Cofactors
Vitamins
& minerals
Antioxidants
PRPP
Nucleotides
Nucleic
acids
Proteins
Glycoproteins
& proteoglycans
Chlorophylls
MEP
MVA
Acetyl
-CoA
Polyketides
Terpenoid
backbones
Terpenoids
& carotenoids (vitamin A)
Cholesterol
Bile acids
Glycero-
phospholipids
Glycerolipids
Acyl-CoA
Fatty
acids
Glyco-
sphingolipids
Sphingolipids
Waxes
Polyunsaturated
fatty acids
Neurotransmitters
& thyroid hormones
Steroids
Endo-
cannabinoids
Eicosanoids
The image above contains clickable links

Major metabolic pathways in metro-style map. Click any text (name of pathway or metabolites) to link to the corresponding article.
Single lines: pathways common to most lifeforms. Double lines: pathways not in humans (occurs in e.g. plants, fungi, prokaryotes). Metabolic metro orange.svg Orange nodes: carbohydrate metabolism. Metabolic metro purple.svg Violet nodes: photosynthesis. Metabolic metro red.svg Red nodes: cellular respiration. Metabolic metro pink.svg Pink nodes: cell signaling. Metabolic metro blue.svg Blue nodes: amino acid metabolism. Metabolic metro grey.svg Grey nodes: vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Metabolic metro brown.svg Brown nodes: nucleotide and protein metabolism. Metabolic metro green.svg Green nodes: lipid metabolism.

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Citric acid cycle metabolic pathway

Acetyl-CoA

Acetyl co-A wpmp.png

+ H2O

Oxaloacetate

Oxaloacetate wpmp.png
Leftward reaction arrow with minor product(s) to bottom left and minor substrate(s) from bottom right
NADH +H+
NAD+

Malate

S-malate wpmp.png
Leftward reaction arrow with minor substrate(s) from bottom right
 
H2O

Fumarate

Fumaric acid wpmp.png
Leftward reaction arrow with minor product(s) to bottom left and minor substrate(s) from bottom right
FADH2
FAD

Succinate

Succinate wpmp.png
Leftward reaction arrow with minor product(s) to bottom left and minor substrate(s) from bottom right
CoA + ATP (GTP)
Pi + ADP (GDP)

Succinyl-CoA

Succinyl-CoA wpmp.png
Biochem reaction arrow forward YNNY vert med.svg Biochem reaction arrow reverse NYYN vert med.svg NADH + H+ + CO2
CoA NAD+
Citrate wpmp.png

Citrate

 
H2O
Rightward reaction arrow with minor product(s) to top right
Cis-Aconitate wpmp.png

cis-Aconitate

H2O
 
Rightward reaction arrow with minor substrate(s) from top left
Isocitric acid.svg

Isocitrate

NAD(P)+
NAD(P)H + H+
Rightward reaction arrow with minor substrate(s) from top left and minor product(s) to top right
Oxalosuccinate wpmp.png

Oxalosuccinate

 
CO2
Rightward reaction arrow with minor product(s) to top right
2-oxoglutarate wpmp.svg

2-oxoglutarate

  • v
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  • e
Metabolism: Citric acid cycle enzymes
Cycle
  • Citrate synthase
  • Aconitase
  • Isocitrate dehydrogenase
  • Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase
  • Succinyl CoA synthetase
  • Succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA)
  • Fumarase
  • Malate dehydrogenase and ETC
Anaplerotic
to acetyl-CoA
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (E1, E2, E3)
  • (regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase)
to α-ketoglutaric acid
  • Glutamate dehydrogenase
to succinyl-CoA
  • Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
to oxaloacetic acid
  • Pyruvate carboxylase
  • Aspartate transaminase
Mitochondrial
electron transport chain/
oxidative phosphorylation
Primary
  • Complex I/NADH dehydrogenase
  • Complex II/Succinate dehydrogenase
  • Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10)
  • Complex III/Coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase
  • Cytochrome c
  • Complex IV/Cytochrome c oxidase
  • Coenzyme Q10 synthesis: COQ2
  • COQ3
  • COQ4
  • COQ5
  • COQ6
  • COQ7
  • COQ9
  • COQ10A
  • COQ10B
  • PDSS1
  • PDSS2
Other
  • Alternative oxidase
  • Electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase


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(a) The number of kilocalories in food is determined by calorimetry techniques in which the food is burned and the amount of heat transfer is measured. How many kilocalories per gram are there in a 5.00-g peanut if the energy from burning it is transferred to 0.500 kg of water held in a 0.100-kg aluminum cup, causing a 54.9ºC temperature increase? (b) Compare your answer to labeling information found on a package of peanuts and comment on whether the values are consistent.

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