The neurotransmitter released at CNS adrenergic synapses is norepinephrine.
Adrenergic nerve fibre
One adrenergic nerve fiber it is a neuron for which the neurotransmitter and also adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline or dopamine. These neurotransmitters are released at a site known as the synapsewhich is a junction point between the axon of a nerve cell and the dendrite from another. Neurotransmitters are first released from the axon and then bind to the receptor site on the dendrite. Adrenergic nerve endings are found on secondary neurons of the sympathetic nervous systemone of the two divisions of autonomic nervous system who is responsible for fight or flight response. This system increases heart ratedelay digestionit dilates the pupils and also controls the secretion of apocrine sweat glands in the dermal layer of the skin, in addition to other responses.
A nerve fiber is a thread-like extension of a nerve cell that includes the axon, which may or may not be enclosed in a myelinated sheath. The androgenic nerve fiber, when myelinated, increases the speed of transmission of an action potential along the entire length of the cell. Gaps in the sheath along the axon are called Ranvier’s Nodes.
There are several types of adrenergic receptors that are identified by their different sensitivity to various drugs. Neurons in the central nervous system contain α1- and α2-adrenergic and β1- and β2-adrenergic receptors. All four types of receptors are also found in various organs of the body besides the brain. They are responsible for the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine when they act as hormones outside the central nervous system. In the brain, all autoreceptors appear to be of the α2 type. (The drug idazoxan blocks α2 autoreceptors and therefore acts as an antagonist.) All adrenergic receptors are metabotropic, coupled to G proteins that control the production of second messengers. Adrenergic receptors can produce both excitatory and inhibitory effects. In general, the behavioral effects of norepinephrine release are excitatory. In the brain, α1 receptors produce a slow depolarizing (excitatory) effect on the postsynaptic membrane, while α2 receptors produce a slow hyperpolarizing (inhibitory) effect. Both types of β receptors increase the postsynaptic neuron’s responsiveness to its excitatory inputs, which is presumably related to the role that this neurotransmitter plays in vigilance.
Adrenergic fibers innervate smooth muscle, cardiac musclevisceral glands and various central nervous system sense structures and organs. Its function is potentiating compared to the inhibitory action of the cholinergic fibers of the parasympathetic system. Peripheral adrenergic neurons integrate signals from other nerves in the central nervous system and peripheral sensory organs. An adrenergic nerve impulse is triggered when a nerve fires repeatedly or when multiple nerves fire simultaneously, which can cause an additive effect leading to greater stimulation. Adrenergic neurons, in particular the α2 autoreceptors found in the brain, are also involved in sexual behavior and appetite control.
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Adrenergic (NA or NE) Neurotransmission explained with animation
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1. Synaptic transmission
5. Noradrenergic neurons
6. Autonomic nervous system
7. Sympathetic nervous system
8. Postganglionic neuron
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10. Post-synaptic neuron
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