Growth hormone (GH) does not target another endocrine gland. It acts directly on target tissues to stimulate growth and metabolism.
non tropic hormones are hormones that directly stimulate target cells to induce effects. This differs from tropic hormonesthat act on another endocrine gland. Nontropic hormones are those that act directly on target tissues or cells and not on others. endocrine gland to stimulate the release of other hormones. Many hormones act in a chain reaction. tropical hormones generally act at the beginning of the reaction by stimulating other endocrine gland eventually release nontropic hormones. They are the ones that act at the end of the chain reaction in other cells that are not part of other cells. endocrine gland. The Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a perfect example of this chain reaction. The reaction starts at hypothalamus with a release of corticotropin releasing hormone/factor (CRH/F; tropic). This stimulates the anterior pituitary and causes it to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; tropic) to the adrenal glands. Lastly, cortisol (non-tropical) is secreted from adrenal glands and goes into the bloodstream where it can have more widespread effects on organs and tissues. Since cortisol is what finally reaches other tissues in the body, it is a non-tropic hormone. CRH and ACTH are tropic hormones because they act on the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, respectively, both of which are endocrine glands. Non-tropic hormones are therefore often the last part of a larger process and hormone secretion chain. Both tropic and non-tropic hormones are necessary for proper endocrine function. For example, if ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone; a tropic hormone) is inhibited, cortisol can no longer be released because the chain reaction has stopped. Some examples of nontropic hormones are:
- glucocorticoids: secreted by the adrenal glands and released directly into the bloodstream, where it alters blood glucose levels. Glucocorticoids, including hormones such as cortisol and corticosterone, are highly involved in the stress response and are often referred to as stress hormones. In the case of chronic stress, glucocorticoids can be very damaging to memory.
- Vasopressin (Antidiuretic hormone; ADH): secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and acts on the kidneys to maintain the body’s water balance.
- estrogen: secreted by the ovaries and aids in fetal development as well as the development of secondary sexual characteristics in females.
- Testosterone: secreted by the testes, testosterone influences not only gonadal development, but also aggressive behavior, sexual behavior and masculinization in males.
- oxytocin: secreted by the posterior pituitary and acts on the uterus and mammary glands to produce contractions. It is also involved in pair bonding and sexual selection and behaviors.
- epinephrine and norepinephrine: secreted from adrenal medulla and acts on the heart, liver and blood vessels mainly in situations of acute stress. They are key components of the processes involved in sympathetic nervous system. Because they are involved in arousal, stress, and often exercise, some of these hormones are also called stress hormones.
- Biology 12 McGrawHill Ryerson (textbook)
- An Introduction to Behavioral Endocrinology (Textbook)
Source: Non-tropic hormone
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