The Optic Nerve (Cranial Nerve II) carries signals associated with vision. It is a purely sensory nerve, meaning that it only carries information from the eyes to the brain, not the other way around.

Table of cranial nerves

cranial nerves
Do not. Name Sensory, motor or both Origin-Destination closed way Occupation
0 terminal ? lamina terminalis Located in cribriform plate of ethmoid bone. Animal research indicates that the terminal nerve is involved in the detection of pheromones.
I Olfactory purely sensory telencephalon Located in olfactory foramen at the cribriform plate of ethmoid bone. Conveys the smell of nasal cavity.
II Optical Sensory retinal ganglion cells Located in optical channel. Transmits visual signals from the retina of the eye to the brain.
III Oculomotor mostly engine previous aspect of midbrain Located in superior orbital fissure. innervates the upper eyelid lifter, upper rectus, medial rectus, lower rectusand inferior oblique, which collectively perform most eye movements. It also innervates the pupillary sphincter and the muscles of the ciliary body.
4 trochlear Motor dorsal aspect of midbrain Located in superior orbital fissure. innervates the superior oblique musclethat depresses, abducts and intrude the eyeball.
V triplet Both sensory and motor bridges Three parts:

V1 (ophthalmic nerve) is located at superior orbital fissure
Vtwo (maxillary nerve) is located at round foramen

V3 (mandibular nerve) is located at foramen ovale.

Receives sensations from the face and innervates the chewing muscles.
SAW abducer mostly engine Nuclei located under the floor of the fourth ventricle

bridges

Located in superior orbital fissure. innervates the lateral straightthat abducts the eye.
VII Facial Both sensory and motor bridges (cerebellar point angle) above the olive Located and crosses the internal acoustic channel for the facial canal and leave in stylomastoid foramen. Provides motor innervation to the facial expression musclesposterior belly of digastric muscle, hyoid style muscle, and stapes muscle. It also receives the special taste of anterior 2/3 of the tongue and provides secretomotor innervation for the salivary glands (except parotid) and the lacrimal gland.
VIII vestibulocochlear

In older texts: auditory, acoustic.

Mainly sensory Lateral to CN VII (cerebellopontine angle) Located in internal acoustic channel. Mediates the sensation of sound, rotation and gravity (essential for balance and movement). More specifically, the vestibular branch carries impulses for balance and the cochlear branch carries impulses for hearing.
IX glossopharyngeal Both sensory and motor Marrow Located in jugular foramen. Receives taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, provides secretomotor innervation to the parotid glandand provides motor innervation to the stylopharyngeal. Some sensations are also transmitted to the brain through the palatine tonsils. This nerve is involved along with the vagus nerve in gag reflex.
x vague Both sensory and motor posterolateral sulcus of Marrow Located in jugular foramen. Supplies branchiomotor innervation to most laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles (except the stylopharyngeal, which is innervated by the glossopharyngeus). also provides parasympathetic fibers to almost all thoracic and abdominal viscera up to the splenic flexure. Receives special taste from the epiglottis. An important function: it controls the muscles of voice and resonance and the soft palate. Damage symptoms: dysphagia (swallowing problems), velopharyngeal insufficiency. This nerve is involved (along with nerve IX) in the pharyngeal reflex or gag reflex.
XI Accessory

Sometimes: cranial accessory, spinal accessory.

mostly engine Cranial and Spinal Roots Located in jugular foramen. controls the sternocleidomastoid and trapeze muscles and overrides functions of the vagus nerve (CN X). Damage symptoms: inability to shrug shoulders, weak head movement.
XII hypoglossus mostly engine Marrow Located in hypoglossal canal. Provides motor innervation to the muscles of the tongue (except for the palatoglossus musclewhich is innervated by the vagus nerve) and others glossal muscles. Important for Swallow (cake formation) and speech articulation.

cranial nerves

References


Source: Table of cranial nerves
Wikipedia

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