The Equestrian Statue of Theodore Roosevelt, located in front of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, has recently been the subject of controversy. The statue, which depicts Roosevelt on horseback flanked by an Indigenous man and an African man, has been criticized for its racist and colonialist imagery. After years of protest and debate, the statue was finally removed in June 2020. This event highlights the ongoing discussion about the role of public monuments and the need for a critical examination of historical figures and their legacies.

Theodore Roosevelt Statue Removed From American Museum Of Natural History

On June 21, 2020, the American Museum of Natural History in New York City removed a bronze statue of former President Theodore Roosevelt from its front steps. The move came after years of protests and calls for its removal due to the statue’s perceived glorification of colonialism, racism, and imperialism.

The statue depicts Roosevelt on horseback, flanked by a Native American man and an African man. Critics have argued that the statue’s design perpetuates the belief in white supremacy and promotes the notion of native and black people as subservient to white people.

The removal of the statue was praised by some as a necessary step in dismantling systems of oppression, while others criticized the decision as erasure of history.

The museum, which has long grappled with issues of representation and equity, has stated that it will not replace the statue with another monument of Roosevelt but will instead focus on presenting a more inclusive and accurate portrayal of American history.

Controversial Teddy Roosevelt Statue Removed From American Museum Of Natural History Roosevelt Statue Removed From American Museum Of Natural History

Equestrian statue by James Earle Fraser in New York City

Equestrian Statue of Theodore Roosevelt
Equestrian statue of Theodore Roosevelt.jpg
Artist James Earle Fraser
Year 1939
Type Bronze
Dimensions 300 cm × 218 cm × 450 cm (10 ft × 7 ft 2 in × 14 ft 9 in)

Equestrian Statue of Theodore Roosevelt is a 1939 bronze sculpture by James Earle Fraser. It was located on public park land at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. The equestrian statue depicts Theodore Roosevelt on horseback. Walking on either side of him are two men, on one side a Native American and on the other, a sub-Saharan African.

The statue has provoked increasing criticism for its hierarchical implications, and there were calls to remove it beginning in 2017.[by whom?] On June 21, 2020, the Museum announced that it was asking city officials to remove the statue. New York Mayor Bill de Blasio supported the removal, as did Roosevelt’s great-grandson, Theodore Roosevelt IV, and great-great-grandson Kermit Roosevelt III. The New York City Public Design Commission voted unanimously on June 21, 2021, to relocate the statue. The statue was removed on January 20, 2022.


It was dedicated on October 27, 1940. Cast by Gorham Manufacturing Company, Providence, RI.

The inscription reads:
(On rear of sculpture:)
(On front of base:)

(On left side of base:)

1899 1901
(On right side of base:)

1901 1909 signed


The monument as part of the neo-classical New York State Memorial to Theodore Roosevelt

The sculpture was commissioned by the Roosevelt Memorial Association in the 1930s after Fraser had delivered his design for the Arts of Peace memorial in Washington D.C., which at the time was also in competition with this memorial as the chosen location. For Arts of Peace, Fraser made a pair of statues of Pegasus depicting the themes Music and Harvest, and Aspiration and Literature.

The statue was placed at the entrance to the Museum’s hall of dioramas dedicated to Carl Akeley who had accompanied Roosevelt on a year-long expedition to Africa. The sculpture and its pedestal were designed for this setting, appropriate in scale and design for the neo-classical plans of Henry Bacon’s architecture. An earlier monument by Fraser dedicated to Roosevelt in Cuba in 1924 was also designed with Henry Bacon, and they both attended its dedication in Cuba.

The two walking figures have been construed as representations of continents, not individuals in a narrative, and that was common practice in public sculpture, of which London’s Albert Memorial is a prominent example. At the same time, the “pyramidal composition” with Roosevelt at its apex “implies a hierarchy”. One analysis of the work, after examining the careers of both Roosevelt and Fraser, concludes that “Both men evidently believed in white dominance as natural order. However, Roosevelt and Fraser also had sincere, if paternalistic, admiration for indigenous cultures and a desire to preserve images and artifacts in what was, for the time, a relatively respectful manner.” Many feel the statue depicts Roosevelt, an early champion of civil rights and equality for black and Native Americans during the early 20th century, as leading minority persons in the U.S. forward towards the promises made to all under the U.S. Constitution. Roosevelt’s relationship with Booker T. Washington and his appointment of Minnie Cox as the first black regional postmaster in the United States (Indianola, Mississippi) is seen as further cementing this view. Roosevelt’s own comments regarding race indicated that he believed all the races were equal, but some cultures were superior due to their greater technological advances over time. The sculptor of the statue, James Earle Fraser, stated the intent with these words: “The two figures at [Roosevelt’s] side are guides symbolizing the continents of Africa and America, and if you choose may stand for Roosevelt’s friendliness to all races.”


Frontal view

In 1999 James Loewen argued in Lies Across America that the statue was erected when the museum was openly racist, and that the arrangement of the figures is meant to advocate white supremacy.

This statue was not otherwise the subject of public controversy in the 20th century. It was mentioned in the April 2017 TED talk Can Art Amend History? by artist and activist Titus Kaphar, discussing the choice of pose showing that “Teddy Roosevelt is sitting there …and on the left-hand side of him is a Native American walking and on the right-hand side of him is an African-American walking” as a representation of white social hierarchy in America. After the Unite the Right rally due to the controversial removal of an equestrian statue of Robert E. Lee, this and many other statues across America also became the focus of attempts to remove what were claimed to be glorifications of America’s racist past. The base of the statue was covered with red paint on the morning of October 26, 2017. A few hours later, a group admitted guilt and claimed that the statue embodied “patriarchy, white supremacy, and settler-colonialism.”

In January 2018, a commission appointed by New York City Mayor Bill de Blasio to review several statues on city property concluded that this statue was open to many interpretations and made no recommendation for action. The commission’s members were divided evenly. Some citing research that the standing figures are allegorical representations of the continents and noting that these figures “are in no way abject”. Others emphasized how the sculpture is experienced, “that height is power in public art”, an expression of “power and dominance”. The New York Times critic Holland Cotter found that decision disappointing: “It doesn’t require a sensitivity to subtexts to see that the composition, no matter how you gloss it, is quite literally an emblem of white-man-on-top.”

In July 2019, the Museum of Natural History mounted an exhibit devoted to the statue and contemporary interpretations called “Addressing the Statue”. The presentation included many contrasting viewpoints and invited comments from visitors. David Hurst Thomas, the curator of anthropology at the Museum said: “The museum is making a really explicit statement that we’re big enough to stand up for our past. We’re not going to cover it up. We’re going to welcome dissent.” The exhibit included an extensive website for further exploration of the sculpture and its interpretation. It presented comments by the sculptor and his collaborators alongside those of academics who contested what the two walking figures represent and whether Roosevelt could be described as a “racial unifier”.

To provide context for those viewing the sculpture, the Museum installed laminated placards at its base that said: “This statue was unveiled to the public in 1940, as part of a larger New York State memorial to former N.Y. governor and U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. Today, some see the statue as a heroic group; others, as a symbol of racial hierarchy. You can learn more about this statue inside the Museum and [online].” An article in the Columbia Journal of Law and the Arts was critical of the placards, noting they were not visible at a distance.


The world does not need statues, relics of another age, that reflect neither the values of the person they intend to honor nor the values of equality and justice.
— Theodore Roosevelt IV

On June 21, 2020, the Museum announced that it would remove the statue. Museum president Ellen V. Futter said the decision did not reflect a judgment about Roosevelt but was driven by the sculpture’s “hierarchical composition”. Her statement to Museum staff said that “many of us find its depictions of the Native American and African figures and their placement in the monument racist”. Roosevelt’s great-grandson, Theodore Roosevelt IV, supported the decision, saying “The world does not need statues, relics of another age, that reflect neither the values of the person they intend to honor nor the values of equality and justice.” Mayor de Blasio said: “The American Museum of Natural History has asked to remove the Theodore Roosevelt statue because it explicitly depicts Black and Indigenous people as subjugated and racially inferior. The City supports the Museum’s request. It is the right decision and the right time to remove this problematic statue.”

On July 12, 2020, Roosevelt’s great-grandson Mark Roosevelt backed efforts to remove the statue. He said: “If we wish to live in harmony and equality with people of other races, we should not maintain paternalistic statues that depict Native Americans and African Americans in subordinate roles. The statue of Theodore Roosevelt, my great-grandfather, in front of New York’s Museum of Natural History, does so, and it is good that it is being taken down.”

On June 21, 2021, the New York City Public Design Commission voted unanimously to remove the statue from in front of the museum and relocate it to an institution devoted to Roosevelt’s life and legacy. On November 19, the Theodore Roosevelt Presidential Library Foundation announced it would accept the statue as a long-term loan from New York City for display at the Theodore Roosevelt Presidential Library, scheduled to open in Medora, North Dakota, in 2026. Theodore Roosevelt IV said: “It is fitting that the statue is being relocated to a place where its composition can be recontextualized to facilitate difficult, complex and inclusive discussions.”

On January 19, 2022, the statue was removed from its location on the plaza in front of the museum.
The plinth remained for some additional months, but was replaced by two plaques, one honoring Roosevelt, and one describing the reasons for the statue’s removal.
The plan to send the statue to North Dakota remains controversial.


  • The plaza in front of the American Museum of Natural History, at night. This is the location where the Equestrian Statue of Roosevelt stood.

    The plaza in front of the American Museum of Natural History, at night. This is the location where the Equestrian Statue of Roosevelt stood.

  • Plaque describing the reasons for the removal of the statue of Roosevelt.

    Plaque describing the reasons for the removal of the statue of Roosevelt.

  • Plaque memorializing Theodore Roosevelt, at the Roosevelt Memorial in front of the American Museum of Natural History. This plaque replaced the Equestrian Statue of Theodore Roosevelt, which stood on this spot from 1940 until 2022.

    Plaque memorializing Theodore Roosevelt, at the Roosevelt Memorial in front of the American Museum of Natural History. This plaque replaced the Equestrian Statue of Theodore Roosevelt, which stood on this spot from 1940 until 2022.

See also

  • flagNew York City portal
  • iconVisual arts portal
  • Allegorical sculpture
  • Architectural sculpture
  • List of sculptures of presidents of the United States
  • Monument and memorial controversies in the United States
  • Monumental sculpture
  • Theodore Roosevelt, Rough Rider, 1922 equestrian statue in Portland, Oregon


External links

  • Theodore Roosevelt at Equestrian Statues
  • Media related to Statue of Theodore Roosevelt (James Earle Fraser) at Wikimedia Commons
  • v
  • t
  • e
James Earle Fraser
  • Benjamin Franklin National Memorial (1906–1911)
  • Frederick Keep Monument (1911)
  • End of the Trail (1915)
  • Alexander Hamilton (1923)
  • John Ericsson National Memorial (1926)
  • Lincoln the Mystic (1930)
  • Guardianship (1935)
  • Heritage (1935)
  • Second Division Memorial (1936)
  • Equestrian Statue of Theodore Roosevelt (1939)
  • Albert Gallatin (1947)
  • Harvey S. Firestone Memorial (1950)
  • General George S. Patton, Jr. (1951)
  • The Arts of Peace (Music and Harvest, Aspiration and Literature) (1951)
Coins and medals
  • Buffalo nickel (1913)
  • World War I Victory Medal (United States) (1919)
  • Navy Cross (1919)
  • Norse-American medal (1925)
  • Oregon Trail Memorial half dollar (1926)
  • Laura Gardin Fraser (wife)
  • American Buffalo silver dollar (2001)
  • American Buffalo coin (2006)
  • National Sculpture Society
  • v
  • t
  • e
Public art and memorials in Manhattan
Portrait sculpture
  • José Bonifácio de Andrada
  • Chester A. Arthur
  • Balto
  • Simón Bolívar
  • Robert Burns
  • William Cullen Bryant
  • El Cid
  • George M. Cohan
  • Christopher Columbus
    • Central Park
    • Columbus Circle
  • Roscoe Conkling
  • William E. Dodge
  • Frederick Douglass
  • Francis P. Duffy
  • Duke Ellington
  • David Farragut
  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • Horace Greeley
    • City Hall Park
    • Herald Square
  • Fitz-Greene Halleck
  • Alexander Hamilton
    • Central Park
    • Columbia University
  • Victor Herbert
  • Alexander Lyman Holley
  • Richard Morris Hunt
  • Władysław II Jagiełło
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Joan of Arc
  • Benito Juárez
  • Marquis de Lafayette
  • Fiorello H. La Guardia
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • José Martí
  • Giuseppe Mazzini
  • Golda Meir
  • Samuel Morse
  • Adam Clayton Powell Jr.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Theodore Roosevelt
  • José de San Martín
  • Walter Scott
  • William H. Seward
  • William Shakespeare
  • Philip Sheridan
  • William Tecumseh Sherman
  • Gertrude Stein
  • Sun Yat-sen
  • Harriet Tubman
  • John Howard Van Amringe
  • Giuseppe Verdi
  • George Washington
    • Union Square
    • Wall Street
  • John Watts
  • Daniel Webster
  • Women’s Rights Pioneers Monument
Other monuments
  • 9/11
    • America’s Response
    • British and Commonwealth
  • African Burial Ground
  • AIDS
  • Amiable Child Monument
  • Civil War
    • Seventh Regiment
    • Soldiers and Sailors
  • Cleopatra’s Needle
  • Gay Liberation
  • Holocaust
  • Independence
  • Irish Hunger
  • John Lennon
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Six Million Jews
  • Slavery and the Transatlantic Slave Trade
  • U.S. Nobel Laureates
  • USS Maine
  • Vietnam Veterans
  • Washington Square Arch
  • World War I
    • 107th Infantry
  • William Jenkins Worth
  • Bethesda Fountain
  • Burnett Memorial Fountain
  • Josephine Shaw Lowell Memorial Fountain
  • Madison Square Park Fountain
  • Peace Fountain
  • Pulitzer Fountain
  • Triumph of the Human Spirit
  • Union Square Drinking Fountain
  • Untermyer Fountain
Other works
  • 5 in 1
  • Alamo
  • Alma Mater
  • Atlas
  • The Baayfalls
  • Bellerophon Taming Pegasus
  • Charging Bull
  • Columbus Circle globe
  • Delacorte Clock
  • Double Check
  • Eagles and Prey
  • The Emperor Has No Ballsdagger
  • Event Horizon
  • Eye of Fashion
  • The Family
  • Fearless Girl
  • Four Continents
  • The Gates
  • The Great God Pan
  • Group of Bears
  • Indian Hunter
  • Joie de Vivre
  • Letters and Science
  • Life Force
  • Le Marteleur
  • Metronome
  • Prometheus
  • Reclining Figure (Lincoln Center)
  • La Rivière
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • Saurien
  • Silent Agitator
  • Spirit of Communication
  • Tau (1/3)
  • The Tempest
  • Three Dancing Maidens
  • Three Way Piece No.1: Points
  • Throwback (1/3)
  • Tightrope Walker
  • Tilted Arcdagger
  • Times Square Hum
  • Times Square Mural
  • Venus
  • Vessel
  • The Wall
Damaged/destroyed in 9/11
  • Bent Propellerdagger
  • Ideogramdagger
  • Sky Gate, New Yorkdagger
  • The Sphere
  • World Trade Center Plaza Sculpturedagger
  • Grand Central Terminal art
  • Public art in Central Park
  • West Harlem Art Fund
  • Outdoor sculptures in Manhattan, NYC
Key: dagger No longer extant or on public display
  • v
  • t
  • e
Theodore Roosevelt
  • 26th President of the United States (1901–1909)
  • 25th Vice President of the United States (1901)
  • 33rd Governor of New York (1899–1900)
  • Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1897–1898)
  • New York City Police Commissioner (1895–1897)
  • First inauguration
    • historic site
  • Second inauguration
  • “Square Deal”
  • Booker T. Washington dinner
  • Conservation
    • Newlands Reclamation Act
    • Transfer Act of 1905
    • Antiquities Act
    • Pelican Island
    • Devils Tower National Monument
    • Muir Woods National Monument
    • Other National Monuments
    • United States Forest Service,
    • United States Reclamation Service
    • National Wildlife Refuge System
    • Roosevelt Arch
    • Conference of Governors
  • Northern Securities Company breakup
    • court case
  • Coal strike of 1902
  • Pure Food and Drug Act
    • Food and Drug Administration
  • Meat Inspection Act
  • Expediting Act
  • Elkins Act
  • Hepburn Act
  • Aldrich–Vreeland Act
  • Federal Employers Liability Act
  • Kinkaid Act
  • Big stick ideology
  • Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty
    • Panama Canal Zone
    • Panama Canal
  • Venezuelan crisis
    • Roosevelt Corollary
  • Occupation of Cuba
  • Russo-Japanese War
    • Treaty of Portsmouth
    • 1906 Nobel Peace Prize
    • Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907
  • Army War College
    • Roosevelt Hall
  • College football meetings
  • Bureau of Investigation
  • Department of Commerce and Labor
    • Bureau of Corporations
  • Keep Commission
  • Inland Waterways Commission
  • Bureau of the Census
  • Great White Fleet
  • Perdicaris affair
  • Cabinet
  • White House West Wing
  • State of the Union Address, 1901
  • 1906
  • 1908
  • White House desk
  • Federal judiciary appointments
  • Spanish–American War
    • Rough Riders
    • Battle of Las Guasimas
    • Battle of San Juan Hill
  • “Bull Moose” Progressive Party
    • New Nationalism
    • Assassination attempt
  • Boone and Crockett Club
  • Smithsonian–Roosevelt African Expedition
  • “River of Doubt” Amazonian expedition
Life and
  • Birthplace, boyhood home replica
  • Sagamore Hill Home and Museum
    • Oyster Bay
  • Maltese Cross Cabin
  • Elkhorn Ranch
  • Pine Knot cabin
  • Gravesite
and speeches
  • Theodore Roosevelt bibliography
  • The Naval War of 1812 (1882 book)
  • “The Strenuous Life” (1899 speech)
  • League to Enforce Peace
  • “Citizenship in a Republic” (1910 speech)
  • “Progressive Cause Greater Than Any Individual” (1912 post-assassination-attempt speech)
  • Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography (1913 book)
  • The Forum magazine articles
  • Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia
  • Archival collections
  • 1898 New York state election
  • Republican National Convention: 1900
  • 1904
  • 1912
  • 1916
  • United States presidential elections: 1900
  • 1904
  • 1912
  • Bibliography
  • Mount Rushmore
  • Theodore Roosevelt Center and Digital Library
  • White House Roosevelt Room
  • Theodore Roosevelt National Park
    • Theodore Roosevelt Wilderness
  • Theodore Roosevelt Island
  • Roosevelt National Forest
  • Roosevelt Study Center
  • Theodore Roosevelt Association
  • Statues
    • New York City
    • Portland, Oregon
  • Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Park
    • Monument Assemblage
  • Theodore Roosevelt Monument
  • Roosevelt Memorial, Portland, Oregon
  • Proposed presidential library
  • Theodore Roosevelt United States Courthouse
  • Roosevelt River
  • Theodore Roosevelt Bridge
  • Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Bridge
  • Theodore Roosevelt Award
  • USS Theodore Roosevelt (1906, 1961, 1984)
  • Roosevelt Road
  • U.S. postage stamps
  • Teddy bear
  • “Speak softly, and carry a big stick”
  • Books
  • Films
    • Terrible Teddy, the Grizzly King, 1901 film
    • Roosevelt in Africa, 1910 documentary
    • The Rough Riders, 1927 film
    • Teddy, the Rough Rider, 1940 film
    • Rough Riders, 1997 miniseries
    • The Roosevelts, 2014 documentary
    • Theodore Roosevelt, 2022 miniseries
  • Political positions
  • “Bully pulpit”
  • Ananias Club
    • “Nature fakers”
  • League to Enforce Peace
  • A Guest of Honor
  • “Muckraker”
  • “Roosevelt Republican”
  • Barnes vs. Roosevelt libel trial
  • Alice Hathaway Lee (first wife)
  • Edith Kermit Carow (second wife)
  • Alice Lee Roosevelt (daughter)
  • Theodore Roosevelt III (son)
  • Kermit Roosevelt (son)
  • Ethel Carow Roosevelt (daughter)
  • Archibald Roosevelt (son)
  • Quentin Roosevelt (son)
  • Theodore Roosevelt IV (grandson)
  • Cornelius V. S. Roosevelt III (grandson)
  • Quentin Roosevelt II (grandson)
  • Kermit Roosevelt Jr. (grandson)
  • Joseph Willard Roosevelt (grandson)
  • Edith Roosevelt Derby (granddaughter)
  • Theodora Roosevelt (granddaughter)
  • Theodore Roosevelt Sr. (father)
  • Martha Bulloch Roosevelt (mother)
  • Anna Bamie Roosevelt (sister)
  • Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt (brother)
  • Corinne Roosevelt (sister)
  • Cornelius Roosevelt (grandfather)
  • James Stephens Bulloch (grandfather)
  • James Alfred Roosevelt (uncle)
  • Robert Barnhill Roosevelt
  • Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (niece)
  • Gracie Hall Roosevelt (nephew)
  • Pete (dog)
  • ← William McKinley
  • William Howard Taft →
  • ← Garret Hobart
  • Charles W. Fairbanks →
  • Category
  • v
  • t
  • e
Monuments and memorials removed during the George Floyd protests
United States
  • Birmingham – Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument; Charles Linn
  • Huntsville – Confederate Soldier Memorial ✻
  • Mobile – Raphael Semmes
  • Bentonville – Confederate Monument ✻
  • Little Rock – Company A, Capitol Guards
  • Pine Bluff – Confederate Monument
  • Carmel-by-the-Sea – Junípero Serra
  • Chula Vista – Christopher Columbus
  • Los Angeles – Junípero Serra
  • SacramentoColumbus’ Last Appeal to Queen Isabella ✻; Junípero Serra; John Sutter
  • San Francisco – Christopher Columbus; Ulysses S. Grant; Francis Scott Key; Junípero Serra
  • Ventura – Junípero Serra ✻
  • Bridgeport – Christopher Columbus
  • Hartford – Christopher Columbus ✻
  • Middletown – Christopher Columbus
  • New Haven – Christopher Columbus ✻
  • New London – Christopher Columbus ✻
  • Norwalk – Christopher Columbus
  • Dover – Delaware Law Enforcement Memorial
  • Wilmington – Christopher Columbus; Caesar Rodney
District of Columbia
  • Washington – Albert Pike
  • Jacksonville – Confederate Memorial; Florida’s Tribute to the Women of the Confederacy ✻
  • Palatka – Putnam County Confederate Memorial ✻
  • Quincy – Gadsden Confederate Memorial
  • Athens – Confederate Monument
  • Decatur – DeKalb County Confederate Monument
  • Indianapolis – Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument
  • Frankfort – Jefferson Davis
  • Louisville – John B. Castleman; Louis XVI
  • New Orleans – John McDonogh
  • Boston – Christopher Columbus; Emancipation Memorial
  • Dearborn – Orville L. Hubbard
  • Detroit – Christopher Columbus
  • Minneapolis – Calvin Griffith
  • Saint Paul – Christopher Columbus
  • St. Louis – Christopher Columbus
  • Las VegasHey Reb!
New Jersey
  • Camden – Christopher Columbus
  • Newark – Christopher Columbus
  • West Orange – Christopher Columbus ✻
New Mexico
  • Albuquerque – Juan de Oñate
  • Alcalde – Juan de Oñate
  • Santa Fe – Diego de Vargas
New York
  • Albany – Philip Schuyler ✻
  • Buffalo – Christopher Columbus
  • Hempstead – Thomas Jefferson
  • New York City – Theodore Roosevelt
  • Rochester – Frederick Douglass
North Carolina
  • Asheville – Vance Monument ✻
  • Charlotte – Jerry Richardson
  • Raleigh – North Carolina Women of the Confederacy; Josephus Daniels; Henry Lawson Wyatt
  • Rocky Mount – Nash County Confederate Monument ✻
  • SalisburyGloria Victis
  • Wilmington – Confederate Memorial; George Davis
  • Columbus – Christopher Columbus (City Hall); Christopher Columbus (Columbus State Community College)
  • EugeneThe Pioneer; The Pioneer Mother
  • Portland – Captain William Clark Monument; Thompson Elk Fountain; Thomas Jefferson; Abraham Lincoln; Theodore Roosevelt; Harvey W. Scott; George Washington
  • Philadelphia – Christopher Columbus ✻; Frank Rizzo; George Whitefield
Rhode Island
  • Providence – Christopher Columbus ✻
South Carolina
  • Columbia – Christopher Columbus
  • Charleston – John C. Calhoun
  • Nashville – Edward W. Carmack; Sam Davis ✻
  • BeaumontOur Confederate Soldiers
  • DallasConfederate War Memorial; One Riot, One Ranger
  • Denton – Confederate Soldier Monument ✻
  • Fort Worth – Confederate Monument
  • Houston – Christopher Columbus; Richard W. Dowling ✻; Spirit of the Confederacy
  • AlexandriaAppomattox
  • Fredericksburg – Slave Auction Block
  • Norfolk – Confederate Monument
  • Portsmouth – Confederate Monument
  • Roanoke – Robert E. Lee
  • Richmond – Christopher Columbus; Jefferson Davis; Howitzer Monument ✻; Stonewall Jackson; Robert E. Lee; Matthew Fontaine Maury; Richmond Police Memorial; J. E. B. Stuart; Williams Carter Wickham
  • MadisonForward; Hans Christian Heg
Other countries
  • Antwerp – Leopold II
  • Ghent – Leopold II
New Zealand
  • Hamilton – John Fane Charles Hamilton
United Kingdom
  • Bristol – Edward Colston
  • Cambridge – Sir Ronald Fisher window
  • Greater Manchester – Dunham Massey Hall sundial
  • London – John Cass; Robert Clayton ✻; Thomas Guy ✻; Robert Milligan
Key: ✻ Pending removal

Retrieved from “”