Are Located Behind The Peritoneal Cavity. The peritoneal cavity is a thin membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the organs within it. The kidneys and pancreas are located behind the peritoneal cavity, making them retroperitoneal organs.

Retroperitoneal space

Anatomical space in the abdominal cavity behind the peritoneum
retroperitoneal space
Retroperitoneal spaces.png

horizontal plane by the kidneys, showing subdivisions of the retroperitoneal space. The anterior and posterior pararenal spaces have been exaggerated to provide representation of their relationship to other retroperitoneal structures.
Gray1120.png

Human kidneys seen from behind with spine removed
Details
identifiers
Latin retroperitoneal space
Mesh D012187
TA98 A10.1.01.002
TA2 3814
FMA 15080
anatomical terminology

The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) and the anatomical space (sometimes a potential space) behind (retro) a peritoneum. It has no specific outlining anatomical structures. Organs are retroperitoneal if they have peritoneum only on the anterior side. Structures that are not suspended by mesentery in the abdominal cavity and located between the parietal peritoneum and the abdominal wall are classified as retroperitoneal.

This differs from organs that are not retroperitoneal, which have peritoneum on their posterior surface and are suspended by mesentery in the abdominal cavity.

The retroperitoneum can be subdivided into:

  • Perinephric (or perinephric) space
  • Anterior (or paranephric) pararenal space
  • Posterior (or paranephric) pararenal space

retroperitoneal structures

Structures behind the peritoneum are called “retroperitoneal”. Organs that were previously suspended in the abdominal cavity by mesentery but subsequently migrated to the peritoneum during the course of embryogenesis become retroperitoneal are considered secondary retroperitoneal organs.

  • Primarily retroperitoneal, meaning that the structures were retroperitoneal throughout development:
  • Secondarily retroperitoneal, meaning that the structures were initially suspended in mesentery and then migrated behind the peritoneum during development
    • The duodenumexcept for the first proximal segment, which is intraperitoneal
    • ascending and descending parts of colon (but not the transverse colon, sigmoid and cecum)
    • pancreas, except for the tail, which is intraperitoneal

subdivisions

Cross-section showing the relationships of the kidney capsule. (The peritoneum is marked at center right.)

sagittal section from behind abdominal wallshowing the capsule relationships of the kidney (pararenal fat labeled left paranephric body center)

perirenal space

It is also called the perinephric space. Bounded by the anterior and posterior leaves of the renal fascia. Contains the following structures:

anterior pararenal space

Bounded by the back layer of peritoneum and the front page of renal fascia. Contains the following structures:

posterior pararenal space

Bounded by the posterior sheet of renal fascia and the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall. It contains only fat (“pararenal fat”) and is also called “paranephric body” or “pararenal fat body”.

clinical significance

Bleeding from a blood vessel or structure in the retroperitoneal, such as the aorta or inferior vena cava into the retroperitoneal space can lead to a retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

It is also possible to have a neoplasm in this area, most commonly a metastasis; or very rarely a primary neoplasm. The most common type is a sarcoma Followed by lymphoma, extragonadal germ cell tumorand gastrointestinal stromal tumor/GIST. Examples of tumors include

See too

References

Anatomy of the peritoneum and mesentery
In general Abdominal
From
ventral mesentery
From
dorsal mesentery
abdominal cavity
In general
pelvic
Uterus/ovaries
recesses
Spaces
national libraries
Scientific databases


Source: Retroperitoneal space
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