Are Located Behind The Peritoneal Cavity. The peritoneal cavity is a thin membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the organs within it. The kidneys and pancreas are located behind the peritoneal cavity, making them retroperitoneal organs.
horizontal plane by the kidneys, showing subdivisions of the retroperitoneal space. The anterior and posterior pararenal spaces have been exaggerated to provide representation of their relationship to other retroperitoneal structures.
Human kidneys seen from behind with spine removed
The retroperitoneal space (retroperitoneum) and the anatomical space (sometimes a potential space) behind (retro) a peritoneum. It has no specific outlining anatomical structures. Organs are retroperitoneal if they have peritoneum only on the anterior side. Structures that are not suspended by mesentery in the abdominal cavity and located between the parietal peritoneum and the abdominal wall are classified as retroperitoneal.
This differs from organs that are not retroperitoneal, which have peritoneum on their posterior surface and are suspended by mesentery in the abdominal cavity.
The retroperitoneum can be subdivided into:
- Perinephric (or perinephric) space
- Anterior (or paranephric) pararenal space
- Posterior (or paranephric) pararenal space
Structures behind the peritoneum are called “retroperitoneal”. Organs that were previously suspended in the abdominal cavity by mesentery but subsequently migrated to the peritoneum during the course of embryogenesis become retroperitoneal are considered secondary retroperitoneal organs.
- Primarily retroperitoneal, meaning that the structures were retroperitoneal throughout development:
- Secondarily retroperitoneal, meaning that the structures were initially suspended in mesentery and then migrated behind the peritoneum during development
- perirenal space
It is also called the perinephric space. Bounded by the anterior and posterior leaves of the renal fascia. Contains the following structures:
- adrenal gland
- renal vessels
- perirenal fatalso called the “fatty capsule of the kidney” and can be considered part of the renal capsule
- anterior pararenal space
- posterior pararenal space
Bounded by the posterior sheet of renal fascia and the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall. It contains only fat (“pararenal fat”) and is also called “paranephric body” or “pararenal fat body”.
It is also possible to have a neoplasm in this area, most commonly a metastasis; or very rarely a primary neoplasm. The most common type is a sarcoma Followed by lymphoma, extragonadal germ cell tumorand gastrointestinal stromal tumor/GIST. Examples of tumors include
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