Antibiotics, such as penicillin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin, are broad-spectrum drugs that can disrupt the body’s normal flora and cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and yeast infections. Additionally, non-antibiotic drugs, such as antifungals and steroids, can also disrupt the body’s normal flora, leading to similar side effects.

Broad-spectrum antibiotic

A color electron microscopy image of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a bacteria commonly targeted by broad-spectrum antibiotics

AN drop-spectrum antibiotic it is a antibiotic which acts on the two main bacterial groups, gram positive and gram negativeor any antibiotic that acts against a wide range of disease-causing agents bacteria. These drugs are used when a bacterial infection is suspected but the group of bacteria is unknown (also called empirical therapy) or when infection with several groups of bacteria is suspected. This is in contrast to a narrow spectrum antibioticthat is effective against only a specific group of bacteria. Although potent, broad-spectrum antibiotics carry specific risks, particularly the disruption of normal native bacteria and the development of antimicrobial resistance. An example of a commonly used broad spectrum antibiotic is ampicillin.

bacterial targets

Antibiotics are often grouped together by their ability to act on different groups of bacteria. Although bacteria are classified biologically using taxonomy, disease-causing bacteria have historically been classified by their microscopic appearance and chemical function. The morphology of the organism can be classified as coconuts, diplococcus, bacilli (also known as “rods”), spiral-shaped or pleomorphic. Further classification occurs through the body’s ability to absorb the Gram stain and counterstain; bacteria that absorb the crystal violet dye stain are called “gram-positive”, those that absorb only the contrast stain are “gram-negative”, and those that remain unstained are called “atypical”. Additional classification includes your need for oxygen (i.e. aerobic or anaerobic), hemolysis patterns, or other chemical properties. The most commonly encountered groups of bacteria include gram-positive cocci, gram-negative bacilli, atypical bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria. Antibiotics are often grouped together by their ability to act on different groups of bacteria. For example, 1st generation cephalosporins are primarily effective against gram-positive bacteria, while 4th-generation cephalosporins are generally effective against gram-negative bacteria.

empirical antibiotic therapy

Main article: empirical therapy

Simplified diagram showing the bacteria that cause common illnesses and the antibiotics that work against them.

Empirical antibiotic therapy refers to the use of antibiotics to treat a suspected bacterial infection despite the lack of a specific bacterial diagnosis. Definitive diagnosis of bacterial species usually occurs through culture of blood, sputum or urine and can take 24 to 72 hours. Antibiotics are usually given after the culture sample was taken from the patient to preserve the bacteria in the sample and ensure an accurate diagnosis. Alternatively, some species can be identified through a urine or stool test.

scratchs

Disturbance of the normal microbiome

There are an estimated 38 trillion microorganisms that colonize the human body. As a side effect of therapy, antibiotics can alter the body’s normal conditions. microbial content indiscriminately attacking pathological and natural, beneficial or harmless bacteria found in the intestines, lungs and bladder. The destruction of the body’s normal bacteria flora it is thought to disrupt immunity, nutrition and lead to relative overgrowth in some bacteria or fungi. An overgrowth of drug-resistant microorganisms can lead to a secondary infection, such as Clostridioides difficile (“C. diff”) or candidiasis (“thrush”). This side effect is more likely with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics because of their greater potential to disrupt a wider range of normal human flora. The use of doxycycline at the acne vulgaris has been associated with an increased risk of Crohn’s disease. Likewise, the use of minocycline in acne vulgaris it has been associated with cutaneous and intestinal dysbiosis.

Examples of broad-spectrum antibiotics

At the humans:

At the Veterinary Medicine, co-amoxiclav(in small animals); penicillin & streptomycin and oxytetracycline (in farm animals); penicillin and potentiated sulfonamides (on horses).

References


Source: Broad-spectrum antibiotic
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