The condensation reaction for carbohydrates involves two monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, combining to form a disaccharide, such as sucrose. This reaction occurs when a hydroxyl group on one monosaccharide reacts with a hydrogen atom on the other, forming a covalent bond and releasing a molecule of water. The resulting disaccharide is then further condensed with other monosaccharides, forming polysaccharides like starch and cellulose.

Condensation reaction

Chemical reaction in which two molecules are combined and a small molecule, usually water, is lost

At the organic chemistryan condensation reaction it’s a kind of chemical reaction in which two molecules it is Combined to form a single molecule, usually with the loss of a small molecule, as Water. If water is lost, the reaction is also known as dehydration synthesis. However, other molecules can also be lost, such as ammonia, ethanol, Acetic Acid and hydrogen sulfate.

The addition of the two molecules normally proceeds gradually to the addition product, usually in balanceand with loss of a water molecule (hence the name condensation). The reaction may otherwise involve the functional groups of the molecule, and is a versatile class of reactions that can occur in acid or basic conditions or in the presence of catalyst. This class of reactions is a vital part of life, as it is essential for the formation of peptide bonds in between amino acids and for the fatty acid biosynthesis.

Idealized scheme showing the condensation of two amino acids to give a peptide bond.

There are many variations of condensation reactions. Common examples include the aldol condensation and the Knoevenagel condensationthat form water as a by-product, as well as the Claisen condensation and the dieckman condensation (Intramolecular Claisen condensation), which form alcohols as by-products.

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References


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